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网络技能tips

网络技能tips

1.清除路由器口令:

有时候,我们常常会忘记路由器的密码,为了找回密码,正常进入设备进行配置,需要修改路由器中存储器的值,那么什么是存储器呢?

路由器与计算机有相似点是,它也有内存、操作系统、配置和用户界面,Cisco路由器中,操作系统叫做
互连网操作系统(Internetwork Operating System)或IOS。路由器中的存储部件:

ROM:只读存储器包含路由器正在使用的IOS的一份副本;

RAM:IOS将随机访问存储器分成共享和主存。主要用来存储运行中的路由器配置和与路由协议有关的IOS数据结构;

闪存(FLASH):用来存储IOS软件映像文件,闪存是可以擦除内存,它能够用IOS的新版本覆写,IOS升级主要是闪存中的IOS映像文件进行更换。

NVRAM:非易失性随机访问存储器,用来存储系统的配置文件。

下表是常用类型路由器的内存功能。

表:路由器内存详细信息一览表

内存类型
 2500、2600、3600
 4000、7000
 
ROM
 不能升级的基本IOS
 可升级IOS
 
共享RAM
 存储缓冲区
 存储缓冲区
 
主RAM
 只有路有表和IOS数据结构
 从闪存装入IOS, 路有表和IOS数据结构
 
闪存(FLASH)
 包含IOS(路由器从闪存运行IOS)
 包含IOS
 
NVRAM
 配置文件
 配置文件
 

 

注:因为2500、2600、3600系列从闪存中运行IOS,所以,在路由器运行期间,2500、2600、3600可能没有足够的内存升级IOS。在4000、7000系列中,IOS在主RAM中运行,因此,在路由器运行期间,闪存能够升级。

为了进入路由器,需要先修改存储器的值:

开机后,连续按Ctrl+Break进入RMON模式,输入命令:

o/r 0x2142
i

正常进入系统后,输入命令wr保存配置,然后输入命令

Router# conf t
Router(conf)# config-register 0x2102
Router# reload
Router#yes

即可

2.升级2600路由器

IP_ADDRESS=192.168.1.10
IP_SUBNET_MASK=255.255.255.0
DEFAULT_GATEWAY=192.168.1.1
TFTP_SERVER=192.168.1.7
TFTP_FILE=c2600-telco-mz.122-15.T17.bin
tftpdnld


3. 合并FLASH

erase flash:2
conf t
part flash 1
config 0x101
exit
write memory
sh flas

4. CISCO2600路由器配置信息无法保存,怎样办?这样办:

System Bootstrap, Version 11.3(2)XA4, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.
TAC:Home:SW:IOS:Specials for info
C2600 platform with 24576 Kbytes of main memory
program load complete, entry point: 0x80008000, size: 0x371d9c
PC = 0xfff0a530, Vector = 0x500, SP = 0x817ffeb0
--------------按Ctrl+Break------------
monitor: command "boot" aborted due to user interrupt
rommon 1 > confreg                      


Configuration Summary
enabled are:
use all zero broadcast
break/abort has effect
ignore system config info
console baud: 9600
boot: image specified by the boot system commands
or default t cisco2-C2600

do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]: y     --------输入y
enable "diagnostic mode"? y/n [n]:              --------回车
enable "use net in IP bcast address"? y/n [n]:        ---------回车
enable "load rom after netboot fails"? y/n [n]:        ---------回车
disable "use all zero broadcast"? y/n [n]:          ---------回车
disable "break/abort has effect"? y/n [n]:          ---------回车
disable "ignore system config info"? y/n [n]: y       ---------输入y,然后回车
change console baud rate? y/n [n]:              ---------回车
change the boot characteristics? y/n [n]:          ---------回车


Configuration Summary
enabled are:
use all zero broadcast
break/abort has effect
console baud: 9600
boot: image specified by the boot system commands
or default t cisco2-C2600

do you wish to change the configuration? y/n [n]:     ---------回车


You must reset or power cycle for new config to take effect
rommon 2 > reset                     ---------输入reset,然后回车

System Bootstrap, Version 11.3(2)XA4, RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
Copyright (c) 1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.
TAC:Home:SW:IOS:Specials for info
C2600 platform with 24576 Kbytes of main memory

program load complete, entry point: 0x80008000, size: 0x371d9c
Self decompressing the image : #################################################

.....系统恢复正常.....

 

5.共享一个CISCO未公开的命令 “if-con”


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------


  On Cisco 7500 you can connect you to the VIP boards for VIP commands (memory, cpu, etc.)
  Router#if-con 2 con
  Entering CONSOLE for VIP2 2
  Type "^C^C^C" or "if-quit" to end this session
  
  VIP-Slot2>
  VIP-Slot2>?
  Exec commands:
  clear Reset functions
  disable Turn off privileged commands
  disconnect Disconnect an existing network connection
  enable Turn on privileged commands
  exit Exit from the EXEC
  help Description of the interactive help system
  lock Lock the terminal
  login Log in as a particular user
  logout Exit from the EXEC
  name-connection Name an existing network connection
  ping Send echo messages
  resume Resume an active network connection
  set Set system parameter (not config)
  show Show running system information
  systat Display information about terminal lines
  terminal Set terminal line parameters
  traceroute Trace route to destination
  where List active connections
  
  VIP-Slot2>en
  VIP-Slot2#sh ver
  Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
  IOS (tm) VIP Software (SVIP-DW-M), Version 12.0(7), RELEASE SOFTWARE (fc1)
  Copyright (c) 1986-1999 by cisco Systems, Inc.
  Compiled Wed 13-Oct-99 22:05 by phanguye
  Image text-base: 0x60010920, data-base: 0x60224000
  
  ROM: System Bootstrap, Version 11.1(11368) [pgreenfi 17], INTERIM SOFTWARE
  
  VIP-Slot2 uptime is 10 minutes
  System restarted by power-on
  Running default software
  
  cisco VIP2 (R4700) processor (revision 0x02) with 8192K bytes of memory.
  Processor board ID 00000000
  R4700 processor, Implementation 33, Revision 1.0 (512KB Level 2 Cache)
  4 Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
  1 FastEthernet/IEEE 802.3 interface(s)
  
  Configuration register is 0x0
  VIP-Slot2#?
  Exec commands:
  cd Change current directory
  clear Reset functions
  clock Manage the system clock
  configure Enter configuration mode
  copy Copy from one file to another
  debug Debugging functions (see also 'undebug')
  delete Delete a file
  dir List files on a filesystem
  disable Turn off privileged commands
  disconnect Disconnect an existing network connection
  enable Turn on privileged commands
  exit Exit from the EXEC
  help Description of the interactive help system
  lock Lock the terminal
  login Log in as a particular user
  logout Exit from the EXEC
  more Display the contents of a file
  name-connection Name an existing network connection
  no Disable debugging functions
  ping Send echo messages
  pwd Display current working directory
  reload Halt and perform a cold restart
  resume Resume an active network connection
  send Send a message to other tty lines
  set Set system parameter (not config)
  setup Run the SETUP command facility
  show Show running system information
  systat Display information about terminal lines
  terminal Set terminal line parameters
  test Test subsystems, memory, and interfaces
  traceroute Trace route to destination
  undebug Disable debugging functions (see also 'debug')
  where List active connections
  write Write running configuration to memory, network, or terminal
  
  VIP-Slot2#
  
  
  
  
  
  ======= 2005-05-08 13:36:00 您在来信中写道:=======
  
  >networker,您好!
  >
  > You can identify your VIP2 model using the show diag command and observing either of the following output:
  >
  > 1.SRAM and DRAM memory
  > 2.EEPROM value
  >
  >Identifying the VIP2 Model Using show diag command and SRAM and DRAM Memory Output
  >Observe the memory configurations in the "Controller Memory Size" row to determine your VIP2 model, as follows:
  >
  >
  >Table 4 VIP2 Memory Configurations
  >
  >VIP SRAM Memory DRAM Memory
  >VIP2-10 512 KB SRAM 8 MB DRAM
  >
  >VIP2-15 1 MB SRAM 8 MB DRAM
  >
  >VIP2-20 1 MB SRAM 16 MB DRAM
  >
  >VIP2-40 2 MB SRAM 32 MB or 64 MB DRAM
  >
  >
  >
  >
  >--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  > Note The VIP2-50 is a different motherboard, and in the show diag output you will see "VIP2 R5K controller".
  >
  >--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  >
  >In the following example, observing the "Controller Memory Size" row of the show diag output shows a VIP2-40 installed.
  >
  >doc-7507#show diag
  >Slot 0:
  >Physical slot 0, ~physical slot 0xF, logical slot 0, CBus 0
  >Microcode Status 0x4
  >Master Enable, LED, WCS Loaded
  >Board is analyzed
  >Pending I/O Status: None
  >EEPROM format version 1
  >VIP2 controller, HW rev 2.13, board revision A0
  >Serial number: 19430823 Part number: 73-1684-05
  >Test history: 0x00 RMA number: 00-00-00
  >Flags: cisco 7000 board; 7500 compatible
  >EEPROM contents (hex):
  >0x20: 01 15 02 0D 01 28 7D A7 49 06 94 05 00 00 00 00
  >0x30: 50 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
  >Slot database information:
  >Flags: 0x4 Insertion time: 0x2064 (8w5d ago)
  >Controller Memory Size: 32 MBytes DRAM, 2048 KBytes SRAM
  >PA Bay 0 Information:
  >Fast-Ethernet PA, 1 ports, 100BaseTX-ISL
  >EEPROM format version 1
  >HW rev 1.04, Board revision B0
  >Serial number: 16749501 Part number: 73-1688-05
  >--Boot log begin--
  >Cisco Internetwork Operating System Software
  >IOS (tm) VIP Software (SVIP-DW-M), Version 12.1(6)E, EARLY DEPLOYMENT RELEASE S)
  >TAC Support: http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/ibld/view.pl?i=support
  >Copyright (c) 1986-2001 by cisco Systems, Inc.
  >Compiled Fri 16-Mar-01 22:16 by eaarmas
  >Image text-base: 0x60010940, data-base: 0x60380000
  >--Boot log end--
  >Identifying the VIP2 Model Using show diag command and EEPROM Value Output
  >Another method to determine your VIP model is to check the contents of the address in EEPROM in the show diag output. The values corresponding to each VIP type are shown in the table below:
  >
  >
  >Table 5 Distinguishing VIP2 Models Based on Show Diag Output
  >
  >VIP2 EEPROM Value
  >VIP2-10, VIP2-15, VIP2-20, VIP2-40 0x15
  >
  >VIP2-50 0x1E
  >
  >
  >
  >Observing the "EEPROM contents (hex)" contents of the show diag output, the following example shows a VIP2-50 installed:
  >
  >Router#show diag 10
  >Slot 10:
  >Physical slot 10, ~physical slot 0x5, logical slot 10, CBus 0
  >Microcode Status 0x4
  >Master Enable, LED, WCS Loaded
  >Board is analyzed
  >Pending I/O Status: None
  >EEPROM format version 1
  >VIP2 R5K controller, HW rev 2.02, board revision D0
  >Serial number: 17090200 Part number: 73-2167-05
  >Test history: 0x00 RMA number: 00-00-00
  >Flags: cisco 7000 board; 7500 compatible
  >EEPROM contents (hex):
  >0x20: 01 1E 02 02 01 04 C6 98 49 08 77 05 00 00 00 00
  >0x30: 68 00 00 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
  >Slot database information:
  >Flags: 0x4 Insertion time: 0x18C0 (00:29:13 ago)
  >Controller Memory Size: 32 MBytes DRAM, 4096 KBytes SRAM

 


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